La via della seta del III millennio

La via cinese per l’apertura del mondo alla globalizzazione

Xi Jinping è da poco entrato nell’Olimpo dei leader cinesi, in seguito al 19° congresso del partito, come Mao Zedong e Deng Xiaoping. Xi si appresta a dare il via a uno dei progetti infrastrutturali più importanti di sempre: la creazione di una nuova via della seta.

L’antica via della seta

La via della seta nell’antichità

La via della seta era un percorso che univa oriente e occidente, crocevia di merci e culture. La Via era costituita da un reticolo che si sviluppava per circa 8.000 km, tra itinerari terrestri, marittimi e fluviali. Su questi percorsi, nell’antichità, si sono snodati i commerci tra l’impero cinese e quello romano. Le vie carovaniere attraversavano l’Asia centrale e il Medio Oriente, collegando Chang’an (oggi Xi’an), in Cina, all’Asia Minore e al Mediterraneo attraverso il Medio Oriente e il Vicino Oriente.

La via della seta del nuovo millennio

Il progetto di Xi è molto articolato e divide la Via in rami terrestri e marittimi. La prima delle diramazioni terrestri partirà dalla Cina, toccando i confini nord dell’Afghanistan, per arrivare a Istanbul, che fungerà da hub per le merci dirette nell’Europa meridionale. La seconda via terrestre passerà integralmente sul territorio russo, trasformando Mosca nella porta d’ingresso per le merci destinate all’Europa settentrionale. Per quello che riguarda il ramo marittimo della Via, una ramificazione andrà direttamente a servire l’America settentrionale, con una “scorciatoia” per Oceania e America meridionale. Il canale marittimo che più interessa l’Europa, e in particolare l’Italia, è la nuova rotta che attraversa il canale di Suez. Le merci cinesi destinate all’Europa arriveranno in Italia, piuttosto che a Rotterdam, con un viaggio che si ridurrà di 7 giorni e che permetterà di abbattere i costi del 10%.

Un’occasione per l’Italia ?

Naturale candidato a diventare l’hub italiano verso le vie gommate europee, sarebbe il porto di Taranto. Per la città sarebbe una seconda opportunità, da quando nel 2010 i cinesi approfittando della crisi greca decisero di puntare sul Pireo come punto di arrivo delle loro merci in Europa. Per nostra fortuna la partita ancora non è chiusa, ma lo potrebbe essere presto.

Il progetto

Paesi coinvolti nella nuova via della seta

Il presidente della Cina ha lanciato il progetto della Via nel lontano 2013 col nome di Obor (One Belt One Road= Una Cintura Una Via). Nonostante il progetto toccasse direttamente una quarantina di paesi, più altrettanti interessati a partecipare, l’avvio è avvenuto in sordina. I primi passi attuati dalla Cina furono la realizzazione della prima FOB (forward operating base) in Gibuti, per proteggere i propri lavoratori all’opera per modernizzare il paese del Corno d’Africa, che per la sua posizione permette il controllo dello stretto di Bab el-Mandeb. Nel frattempo, altri lavoratori cinesi potenziavano altri porti in varie parti del globo. La mossa successiva fu il rilancio del progetto col nome di Bri (Belt and Road Iniziative) avvenuto a metà del 2016. Poco dopo furono sbloccati oltre 100 miliardi per l’AIIB (Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank) con l’obiettivo di arrivare entro il 2020 ad attrarre investimenti nell’ordine del trilione di dollari.

Le motivazioni della Cina

Il progetto del paese dei Dragoni, non ha solo finalità di ampliamento dei mercati, ma anche quello di evitare lo strangolamento economico. Per fortuna di Xi, l’arrivo di Trump ha allentato il nodo attraverso la rinuncia dell’America al TPP (Trans-Pacific Partnership), che favoriva i commerci tra 12 paesi che si affacciano sul Pacifico a scapito della Cina. Restano comunque dei pericoli per il colosso cinese nel progetto per la creazione di un arco “Indo-pacifico”, guidato da Giappone e India. I due pericolosi vicini della Cina avranno il compito di limitarne i commerci, con l’obiettivo di danneggiare l’economia del paese. Per evitare ciò Xi punta molto, se non tutto, sulla Via della seta. In caso di fallimento dell’iniziativa, la Cina vedrebbe la sua credibilità a livello internazionale ridimensionata, dopo i tanti sforzi fatti per accrescerla. Al contrario ,una buona riuscita dell’impresa, consacrerebbe il paese nell’Olimpo delle superpotenze, aggiungendo al tavolo internazionale un attore con risorse economiche e capitale umano mai visti finora.

Cost of Living Increases, China’s Poor Struggle

China’s poor are being hit hard as the expense of putting supper on the table takes off, honing disdain and highlighting a quickly developing crevice amongst rich and poor.

Vegetable costs are up anyplace from a third to twofold over the same time a year ago. Cooking oil, leafy foods meats are additionally up, as per reviews, official figures and affirmations from nourishment venders and customers.

“Not all costs are going up. What’s more, not all individuals can’t bear the cost of it,” said Ye Tan, a well known financial specialist and media pundit. “This time expansion truly is an issue of poor people.

In the event that you are white collar class or rich, you don’t see that cabbage has gone up from 2 to 7 mao for each half-kilo,” or 4 to 11 U.S. pennies, or that ginger now costs around 6 renminbi, or 90 pennies, a half-kilogram, or a little more than a pound, about twofold the cost of a year ago.

Examiners say the reasons for expansion are mind boggling, however key variables incorporate a surging cash supply — up 47 percent since 2009, as indicated by Jing Ulrich of J.P. Morgan — rising ware costs abroad and a late, frosty spring and summer downpours.

Others say quick monetary development definitely creates some expansion. China’s economy has grown a normal of more than 9 percent yearly since 1989.

The buyer value list for October remains at 4.4 percent, over the administration’s objective of 3 percent. Ms. Ye anticipates that the November figure will be somewhere around 4.7 and 4.8 percent, with expansions to 5 percent one year from now.

That is underneath a brief high of 8.7 percent in mid 2008, yet the legislature is sufficiently concerned to have presented authoritative measures, such as lifting street tolls on trucks bringing sustenance into urban areas. It has additionally reported another, “judicious” fiscal arrangement for 2011.

“Trepidation of swelling is hard-wired into their framework,” said a student of history turned-expert, who talked secretly, reflecting political and social sensitivities.

The Chinese Communist Party always remembers it seized power in 1949 after military triumph, as well as hyperinflation under the Kuomintang government, he said. High swelling in the late 1980s — around 20 percent in 1988 — was a noteworthy reason for agitation prompting the 1989 majority rules system development that almost toppled the gathering.

A separated Beijing father surnamed Wei, who asked that his full name not be utilized for disgrace at his neediness, is attempting to put his girl through school on an annuity of 1,000 renminbi, or $150, a month.

“I can’t bear the cost of organic product at all now,” said Mr. Wei, 52, who took early retirement at 50. “I just purchase the least expensive vegetables, similar to cabbage and radishes.”

Cakes and other arranged sustenances are out, as he tries to press his own use to 400 renminbi a month. The rest is for his little girl. He trusts President Hu Jintao’s legislature is supporting the poor than previous President Jiang Zemin’s, yet the administration’s little endowments for low-salary family units don’t help much. He’s furious about the disparity he sees around him.

“It feels uncalled for, without a doubt, that for a long time now the rich have been getting increasingly rich,” he said, “while individuals like me carry on with a life that is increasingly poor.” China’s pay imbalance is becoming relentlessly. That clarifies why swelling is progressively dubious, regardless of the fact that it’s still underneath the spike of mid 2008.

Precise information are difficult to find, however numerous financial specialists gauge the nation’s Gini coefficient — the record of disparity — crossed the risk edge of 0.4 around 10 years prior. On the Gini scale, 0 speaks to finish fairness and 1 speaks to finish disparity.

Formally, it is some place around 0.45-0.5, like the United States. In any case, a milestone concentrate prior this year on unreported pay, by the financial analyst Wang Xiaolu at the China Reform Foundation, found that shrouded wage totaled $1.5 trillion, with 80 percent in the hands of the wealthiest 20 percent.

That would put China’s Gini file at more than 0.5, keeping pace with numerous South American nations, and, if patterns proceed, set out toward the pay disparity of a lot of Africa.

Normal wages are rising, yet stay low, particularly in the field. Urban expendable wages found the middle value of 17,175 renminbi per capita in 2009, as per government figures, and 5,153 renminbi in the farmland. With family units spending around 40 percent of their salary on nourishment, expansion in that division rapidly interprets into hardship for millions.

Outdoor Activities Proved To Improve Your Vision

Kids who invest energy doing exercises outside seem to have a lower danger of creating partial blindness, or nearsightedness, as it is medicinally termed, by new report composed by a group from Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou, China, distributed in JAMA.

Nearsightedness is “a dream condition in which close questions are seen plainly, however protests more distant away seem obscured.” It happens if the eyeball is too long, or the cornea – the unmistakable title page of the eye – has a lot of arch.

This causes the light entering the eye to be erroneously engaged, and makes far off articles look obscured, by American Optometric Association (AOA). There is some proof that nearsightedness is genetic, however investigate progressively demonstrates that the visual anxiety of an excessive amount of close work may assume a part.

The creators of the new report say that the rate of nearsightedness seems, by all accounts, to be developing, particularly in Europe and the Middle East. In some urban ranges of East and Southeast Asia, astigmatism is currently at “pandemic levels” among youthful grown-ups, influencing 80-90% of secondary school graduates.

The exploration group, drove by Dr. Mingguang He, PhD, took after 1,903 grade school understudies more than 3 years to investigate why it would matter in the event that one 40-minute session of open air movement was added to the school day.

The mediation bunch comprised of 952 understudies from six schools, while the control gathering was comprised of 951 understudies from six different schools. All kids were free of nearsightedness at study gauge.

Folks of youngsters in the mediation gathering were urged to connect with their kids in further open air exercises at weekends and amid occasions, while the kids in the control gathering were to proceed with their typical schedule. The normal age of the kids was 6.6 years.

China Government to Close ‘Illegal’ Golf Courses

Beijing – China’s Communist rulers have betrayed the selective game of golf with the administration saying about 70 “unlawful” courses have been shut, apparently upholding 10 years old boycott interestingly.

The declaration by the service of area and assets comes in the midst of a prominent hostile to unite battle initiated by President Xi Jinping, which has seen crackdowns on dinners, rich blessing giving and other authority abundances.

The decision Communist Party has long had an undecided association with golf, which is a lucrative open door for neighborhood powers and a favored side interest of a few authorities, but on the other hand is nearly connected with riches and Western elites.

“In the blink of an eye, nearby governments have closed down various wrongfully manufactured greens, and preparatory results have been accomplished in tidy up and correction work,” read the declaration on the service’s site late Monday.

News of the terminations was soon taken after on Tuesday by a business service declaration that senior authority Wang Shenyang was being examined for playing golf disregarding Xi’s “eight principles” on authority conduct.

With an eye on containing open resentment regarding China’s broadening riches hole, powers have as of late banned a combination of “indulgences, for example, private clubs – regularly frequented by authorities – in memorable structures and stops.

Be that as it may, such requests are regularly ridiculed.

A year ago the decision gathering’s hostile to unite commission in Guangdong reported that commonplace Communist authorities would confront discipline on the off chance that they occupied with any of nine golf-related exercises, including joining a golf club.

The notification encouraged the general population to report any suspected golf infringement through a phone hotline. An editorial on the commission’s site pronounced that “everywhere throughout the world, golf is synonymous with luxurious spending, and even in created Western nations, it is viewed as a “respectable” game”.

Golf club enrollments in China regularly cost “far over the ordinary yearly salary level of authorities and the overall population”, it said, and office-holders who get to be “enchanted” of the game “danger putting some distance between the masses”.